Graphic way of organizing concepts proposed during brainstorming. Co-op Co-op Cooperative learning method where teams work to prepare and present a topic to the whole class. Emphasis is on student selection of topics, partners, division of labor, methods of presentation, etc. Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeships take many forms, but the two key components are social interactions to allow students to work on problems that may be too difficult for them to handle individually, and a focus on real world problems using real-world tools.
These features vary by type of cancer and specific hereditary syndrome. Criteria have been published to help identify individuals who may benefit from genetic counseling.
It is important that individuals who are candidates for genetic testing undergo genetic education and counseling before testing to facilitate informed decision-making and adaptation to the risk or condition.
Genetic education and counseling allows individuals to consider the various medical uncertainties, diagnosis, or medical management options based on varied test results; and the risks, benefits, and limitations of genetic testing.
Components of Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling Comprehensive cancer risk assessment and counseling is a consultative service that includes clinical assessment, genetic testing when appropriate, and risk management recommendations delivered in the context of one or more genetic counseling sessions.
Pretest genetic counseling is an important part of the risk assessment process and helps patients understand their genetic testing options and potential outcomes. Posttest genetic counseling helps patients understand their test results, including the medical implications for themselves and their relatives.
The recommended provision of cancer risk assessment services optimally involves care providers from multiple disciplines, including a genetic counselor; a genetics advanced practice nurse; a medical geneticist or a physician, such as an oncologist, surgeon, or internist; and potential referrals to other specialists, such as mental health professionals, endocrinologists, and reproductive specialists.
Traditionally, genetic counseling services have been delivered using individualized, in-person appointments. However, other methodologies are being explored, including group sessions, telephone counseling, and telemedicine by videoconferencing.
Previously, most germline genetic testing was offered for a single gene at a time; however, recent technological advances have resulted in the widespread availability of multigene panel testingwhich can simultaneously test for pathogenic variants in many genes at once, often at costs comparable to single-gene testing.
Research examining the use of multigene testing is under way. Some genetic tests are also offered directly to the consumer DTC. While these tests may promote patient autonomy and increased awareness of the importance of family history, DTC genetic testing may not include genetic counseling or interpretation of the results by a genetics professional.
Employment and insurance discrimination are common concerns for individuals considering genetic testing. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Acta Federal law passed inprotects the provision of health insurance and employment discrimination on the basis of genetics information; however, it does not apply to members of the military or to long-term care insurance.
When a linked term is clicked, the definition will appear in a separate window. A concerted effort is being made within the genetics community to shift terminology used to describe genetic variation. Variants can then be further classified as benign harmlesslikely benign, of uncertain significance, likely pathogenic, or pathogenic disease causing.
Throughout this summary, we will use the term pathogenic variant to describe a disease-causing mutation. Refer to the Cancer Genetics Overview summary for more information about variant classification.
Genetic counseling is defined by the National Society of Genetic Counselors as the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical, psychological, and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease.
Several reviews present overviews of the cancer risk assessmentcounseling, and genetic testing process. The following are features that suggest hereditary cancer: Multiple primary cancers in a single individual e. Bilateral cancer in paired organs or multifocal disease e.
Clustering of the same type of cancer in close relatives e. Cancers occurring in multiple generations of a family i.
Occurrence of rare tumors e. Occurrence of epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer.Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles Brainerd and Valerie F.
Reyna that draws upon dual-trace [clarification needed] conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena, particularly in the memory and reasoning domains. The theory has been used in areas such as cognitive psychology, human .
Topics include: ~Set theory, including Venn diagrams ~Properties of the real number line ~Interval notation and algebra with inequalities ~Uses for summation and Sigma notation ~Math on the Cartesian (x,y) plane, slope and distance formulas ~Graphing and describing functions and their inverses on the x-y plane, ~The concept of instantaneous.
Logical operators can also be visualized using Venn diagrams.. Logical conjunction (AND) Logical conjunction is an operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of true if both of its operands are true..
The truth table for p AND q (also written as p ∧ q, Kpq, p & q, or p ⋅ q) is as follows. One of the traditional applications of Euler diagrams is as a representation or counterpart of the usual set-theoretical models of given sentences.
However, Euler diagrams have recently been investigated as the counterparts of logical formulas, which constitute formal proofs. Math homework help.
Hotmath explains math textbook homework problems with step-by-step math answers for algebra, geometry, and calculus. Online tutoring available for . This executive summary reviews the topics covered in this PDQ summary on cancer genetics risk assessment and genetic counseling, with hyperlinks to detailed sections below that describe the evidence on each topic.
Identification of Individuals for Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling.