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Be able to recognize a nail as a fastening device from a non-fastening devices. Cognitive structures are used to provide meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to go beyond the information given. According to Bruner, the instructor should try and encourage students to construct hypotheses, makes decisions, and discover principles by themselves Kearsley b. The instructor's task is to "translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's current state of understanding" and organize it in a spiral manner "so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.

An instruction on how to create a html web page

Concluding Remarks Throughout the U. Typically, these children are in one of three types of instructional programs: Transitional bilingual programs - Native speakers of Spanish are instructed entirely in Spanish for a period of time before transitioning into English instruction.

Dual language programs - Approximately half of the students are native Spanish speakers, and the rest are native English speakers. Students receive instruction in both languages, with the goal of all students becoming fully bilingual.

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Spanish Immersion programs - Students who are not native Spanish speakers receive all of their instruction is in Spanish so that they can become fluent in the language.

Regardless of the type of program, all of these students have one thing in common. They are learning to read in a language that is in some ways very similar to English, but in other ways is very different.

Stages of Literacy Development Whether learning to read in Spanish or in English, children pass through three broad stages of literacy development: Reading Maestros To see Dr.

You can learn more in her Meet the Expert interview as well! In the Emergent stage, children who cannot yet read, write, or spell are just beginning to explore the world of print. They may pretend to read books as they turn the pages, but they are not yet able to match speech to print.

Their writing is also "pretend writing," made up first of scribbles and later including some symbols and even letters. Children in the emergent stage may know that writing represents ideas, but it is not until the very end of this stage that they start to understand that letters represent the sounds they hear in words.

Children in the Beginning stage of literacy development have a solid knowledge of the alphabet and are learning to decode, or "sound out" words. They still need a lot of support when they are reading, and their reading is slow and laborious.

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Beginning readers read out loud, and they guide their reading by fingerpointing. Texts for beginning readers have controlled vocabulary so that children only encounter familiar words as they read.

At this stage, children attempt to represent the sounds they hear in words in their writing, but their spelling is often incomplete, representing only the most salient or prominent sounds in the words they write.

In the Instructional stage, children are able to read independently, and they can read silently. They can also read for the purpose of learning new information and new vocabulary.

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By this stage, children have become efficient at decoding, so the focus of instruction shifts to comprehension. During the instructional stage, children no longer spell words based on sound alone. They begin to learn about spelling patterns in which multiple letters combine to form one sound.

What's the Same, and What's Different? Spanish and English are both alphabetic languages, and therefore the process of learning to read is essentially the same in the two languages: First, children develop the essential skills in the areas of alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and print knowledge that provide a foundation for learning to read.

Next, they begin to apply those skills as they learn to decode text. During this time, they gradually build their repertoire of sight words i. Once decoding becomes automatic and children no longer have to devote so much attention to "getting the words off the page," they can read more complex texts that place greater demands for comprehension.

The primary difference between Spanish and English reading development and instruction occurs during the period in which children are learning to decode text. This is because of differences in the two languages' orthographies, or spelling systems.

English has what is often referred to as an opaque orthography, meaning that English sound-symbol correspondences are not always predictable.

Think, for example, of the pronunciation of "ough" in the words though, ought, through, plough, cough, and rough. Because of such inconsistencies, children typically spend three to four years learning to decode text fluently.

Spanish, on the other hand, has a very predictable orthography, sometimes referred to as a transparent orthography. Once children learn the basic sound-symbol correspondences, they can easily decode most Spanish words.

Thus, by the end of first grade, children can read most Spanish text with a high level of accuracy, regardless of the familiarity of the word patterns.

There is one caveat, however. Children can often decode text far beyond the level at which they have good comprehension of what they are reading, and this drop in comprehension is usually accompanied by a drop in reading rate.

The challenge for teachers is to place students in texts that they can not only read accurately but can also read at a good rate and with good comprehension.Quia Web. Create your own educational games, quizzes, class Web pages, surveys, and much more!

Explore millions of activities and quizzes created by educators from around the world. This article shares some ways that early Spanish and English literacy instruction are similar and different.

It also explains the order in which reading skills are typically taught in Spanish and suggests activities in the classroom and at home that complement instruction.

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