Causes of the wars of religion

Visit Website This effectively calmed simmering tensions between peoples of the two faiths within the Holy Roman Empire for more than 60 years, although there were flare ups, including the Cologne War and the War of the Julich Succession

Causes of the wars of religion

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Empire was a fragmented collection of practically independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as their titular ruler; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg.

The Austrian House of Habsburgwho remained Catholic, was a major European power in its own right, ruling over some eight million subjects in present-day Germany, AustriaBohemia and Hungary. A vast number of minor independent duchies, free imperial cities, abbeys, bishoprics, and small lordships of sovereign families rounded out the Empire.

Lutheranismfrom its inception at Wittenberg infound a ready reception in Germany, as well as German-speaking parts of Hussite Bohemia where the Hussite Wars took place from toand Hussites remained a majority of the population until the Battle of White Mountain.

The preaching of Martin Luther and his many followers raised tensions across Europe. In Northern GermanyLuther adopted the tactic of gaining the support of the local princes and city elites in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines.

The Elector of Saxonythe Landgrave of Hesse and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles Vbut also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands, in what is called the Magisterial Reformation.

Church property was seized, and Catholic worship was forbidden in most territories that adopted the Lutheran Reformation. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war.

Rebellions of Anabaptists and other radicals[ edit ] Further information: The first large-scale violence was engendered by the more radical element of the Reformation movement, who wished to extend wholesale reform of the Church to a similar wholesale reform of society in general.

It consisted of a series of economic as well as religious revolts by Anabaptist peasantstownsfolk and nobles. The conflict took place mostly in southern, western and central areas of modern Germany but also affected areas in neighboring modern Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands for example, the Anabaptist riot in Amsterdam [13].

At its height, in the spring and summer ofit involved an estimatedpeasant insurgents. Contemporary estimates put the dead atThis played a major part in the rejection of his teachings by many German peasants, particularly in the south.

Here a group of prominent citizens, including the Lutheran pastor turned Anabaptist Bernhard RothmannJan Matthysand Jan Bockelson "John of Leiden" had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, He legalized polygamy and took sixteen wives, one of whom he personally beheaded in the marketplace.

Community of goods was also established.

Causes of the wars of religion

After obstinate resistance, the town was taken by the besiegers on June 24,and then Leiden and some of his more prominent followers were executed in the marketplace. The Catholic cantons in response had formed an alliance with Ferdinand of Austria.

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After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in Mayand the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in Galland marched to Kappel at the border to Zug.

Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement Erster Landfriede that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, which had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs.

Causes of the wars of religion

Tensions remained essentially unresolved. Switzerland was to be divided into a patchwork of Protestant and Catholic cantons, with the Protestants tending to dominate the larger cities, and the Catholics the more rural areas.

Intensions between Protestants and Catholics re-emerged and led to the outbreak of the First War of Villmergen. The Catholics were victorious and able to maintain their political dominance.

The Toggenburg War in was a conflict between Catholic and Protestant cantons. According to the Peace of Aarau of 11 August and the Peace of Baden of 16 Junethe war ended with the end of Catholic hegemony.

The Sonderbund War of was also based on religion. Schmalkaldic War and Second Schmalkaldic War Destruction of the fortress above the village of Godesberg during the Cologne War, ; the walls were breached by mines, and most of the defenders were put to death.

Engraved by Frans Hogenberg, a Dutch engraver and artist of the 16th century. Following the Diet of Augsburg inthe Emperor demanded that all religious innovations not authorized by the Diet be abandoned by 15 April Failure to comply would result in prosecution by the Imperial Court.

In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December Here they banded together to form the Schmalkaldic League German: Schmalkaldischer Bundan alliance designed to protect themselves from the Imperial action.

Its members eventually intended the League to replace the Holy Roman Empire itself, [21] and each state was to provide 10, infantry and 2, cavalries for mutual defense.Argument Islam Is a Religion of Violence Can the wave of violence sweeping the Islamic world be traced back to the religion's core teachings?

An FP debate about the roots of extremism. The almost continual warfare in the Middle East over the past half century certainly has contributed to the idea that religion is the cause of many wars.

The September 11 attacks on the United States has been seen as a jihad against the “Great Satan” America, which in . RELIGION CAUSES WAR: PROS AND CONS There are many arguments and counter-arguments when discussing the topic of religion causing war.

Many critics argue that throughout history, religion has been the single greatest source of human-caused wars, suffering, and misery. The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of .

Causes Behind the Wars The French Wars of Religion, spanning more than three and a half decades, were one of the longest-running civil conflicts in world history. These wars illustrate how extreme hostility between two factions of a religion can destroy an entire generation.

War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.

Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.

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