The biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate is known as nitrification. This process consists of various steps, as demonstrated in Figure 1, and is mediated by autotrophic, obligately aerobic bacteria. Urea is decomposed by the enzyme urease or chemically hydrolyzed into ammonia and CO2.
Lyon, Florissant, John R. Parks, University City, and Joseph G. Filed May 10,Ser. This invention relates to ammonium nitrate materials especially suitable for use in the field of explosives and to methods for preparing such materials.
More particularly, the invention relates to high density ammonium nitrate materials useful for the provision of explosives of improved eificiency.
Ammonium nitrate based explosives are now widely employed and, for example, are employed in strip mining operations where it is necessary to remove a sedimentary rock overlayer to expose the desired mineral values.
Explosives of this type, when used for such operations, have the advantage that they are inexpensive and the advantage that they can be field mixed, but this does not mean that such explosives are ideal in all respects.
To the contrary, ammonium nitrate based explosives, as commonly employed, have two pronounced disadvantages.
The first of these disadvantages is that the detonation velocity of presently available ammonium nitrate explosives is Characteristics of ammonium nirate below the speed of sound in hard rock so that high efiiciency is not obtained.
The second such disad vantage is that the explosive compositions normally have such low densities that they will not sink when introduced into a water filled bore hole.
Explosives based primarily upon ammonium nitrate in admixture with a suitable fuel are not at the present time widely employed in underground mining operations. There are a number of reasons for this but two of primary importance arethat this class of explosives usually has such a large critical diameter that they cannot be employed in small diameter bore holes and the detonation velocity of such explosives has not been high enough to give the desired results.
As contrasted to the 8 to 10 inch diameter bore holes usually employed in strip mining, the bore holes used in underground mining are usually between 1 and 2 inches in diameter and this is below the minimum satisfactory size usable with conventional ammonium nitrate-fuel mixtures.
Ammonium nitrate based explosives generally comprise ammonium nitrate granules, pellets or globules mixed with an amount of a suitable combustible fuel approximately sufiicient to be oxidized by the decomposition of the ammonium nitrate, the most widely employed combustible fuels being liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, such as No.
Globules formed by solidification of suspended droplets are known in the art as prills and low density prilled ammonium nitrate is generally considered the best available form of ammonium nitrate for preparing explosives of the above type because the low density prills contain minute voids which permit the liquid hydrocarbon fuel to penetrate and become intimately associated with the ammonium nitrate.
The minute voids also provide numerous compression centers which are believed to aid in the propagation of the explosion through adiabatic compression of the gases contained in the voids to temperatures in excess of the ignition temperature of the ammonium nitrate-fuel mixture.
In recent years there has been introduced into the agricultural fertilizer trade high density ammonium nitrate prills but these have been found to be not suitable for use in making explosive mix- 3, Patented Oct. In accordance with this invention, there is provided a microprilled product which can have an appreciably higher bulk density than that of the high density fertilizer material mentioned above and, where desired, can have a density appreciably above that of water.
It has been found that if microprills of proper sizes are selected, penetration of a fuel, such as hydrocarbon oil, to the interior portions of the prills is not necessary for an efiicient explosion and that the voids existing between the minute prills apparently serve as compression centers similarly to the inernal voids of low density prills.
By proper selection of prill size it has also been found that a microprilled product in accordance with this invention can be employed for producing an explosive which gives excellent results in bore holes of a diameter conventionally employed in underground mining operations.
Further, an explosive composition properly prepared from the microprilled product has a detonation velocity substantially above that of previously available hydrocarbon-ammonium nitrate mixtures and above the speed of sound in hard rock.
The ammonium nitrate particles in compositions according to this invention must comprise prills and cannot suitably consist of particles formed by grinding or the like.
If high density fertilizer ammonium nitrate prills are ground, the resulting product is a relatively low density material which cannot readily be compressed to give a bulk density comparable to that of the fertilizer grade material from which it was formed.
Further, if the low density ground material is used to form an explosive mixture, the resulting mixture is characterized by a relatively low detonation velocity.Agent Characteristics. APPEARANCE: Colorless watery liquid. DESCRIPTION: Methanol is a toxic alcohol that is used industrially as a solvent, pesticide, and alternative fuel source.
It also occurs naturally in humans, animals, and plants. Foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, fruit juices, fermented beverages, and diet soft drinks. To better understand the detonation characteristics of ammonium nitrate (AN) and activated carbon (AC) mixtures, steel tube tests were carried out for AN/AC mixtures of various compositions and different forms of AN (powdered, prilled, phase stabilized and granular), and the detonation velocity was measured.
How do I determine the molecular shape of a molecule? What is the lewis structure for co2? What is the lewis structure for hcn? Some compounds contain both ionic and covalent bonds. Here are examples of compounds that exhibit both types of chemical bonding.
Compounds With Both Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Search the site GO.
Science. In ammonium sulfide, the ammonium cation and the sulfide anion are ionically bonded together, even though all of the atoms are nonmetals. Oct 16, · Lewis Dot Structure of NO3- (Nitrate Ion) barnweddingvt.com Loading Unsubscribe from barnweddingvt.com? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 20K.
In this experiment you will be looking at the reaction between lead nitrate and potassium iodide. You will be exploring some of the conditions that are necessary for this reaction to take place.