The word "data" was first used to mean "transmissible and storable computer information" in
You can assign a label to either data or users.
Data collection and analysis grid assigned to data, the label can be attached as a hidden column to tables, providing transparency to SQL.
When a user attempts to access data, OLS compares the user label with the data label and determines whether to grant access.
If unified auditing is enabled, then the database provides a policy-based framework to configure and manage audit options.
You can group auditing options for different types of operations, including OLS operations, and save them as an audit policy.
You can then enable or disable the policy to enforce the underlying auditing options.
Whenever an OLS policy is created, the database adds a label column for the policy to the database audit trail table. OLS auditing can write audit records, including records for OLS administrator operations, to the unified audit trail. Auditing is the primary mechanism for monitoring data access.
Database Auditing Database auditing is the monitoring and recording of selected user database actions. You can configure a unified audit policy to audit the following: SQL statements, system privileges, schema objects, and roles as a group of system privileges directly granted to them Administrative and non-administrative users Application context values An application context is an attribute name-value pair in a specified namespace.
Applications set various contexts before executing actions on the database. For example, applications store information such as module name and client ID that indicate the status of an application event.
Applications can configure contexts so that information about them is appended to audit records. You do not create unified audit policies for Recovery Manager events. You can also use fine-grained auditing to audit specific table columns, and to associate event handlers during policy creation.
For unified and fine-grained auditing, you can create policies that test for conditions that capture specific database actions on a table or times that activities occur. For example, you can audit a table accessed after 9: Reasons for auditing include: Enabling future accountability for current actions Deterring users or others, such as intruders from inappropriate actions based on their accountability Investigating, monitoring, and recording suspicious activity Addressing auditing requirements for compliance Starting in Oracle Database 12c, when you use unified auditing, database auditing is enabled by default.
You control database auditing by enabling audit policies. However, before you can use unified auditing, you must migrate your databases to it.
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide to learn how to migrate to unified auditing Audit Policies You can use a single SQL statement to create a named unified audit policy that specifies a set of audit options.
These options can specify system privileges, actions, or roles to be audited inside the database.
In an audit policy, you can optionally set a condition that can be evaluated for every statement, once for a session, or once for the database instance.
The auditing of an event is subject to the result of the evaluation of a condition for the applicable audit policies.
If the condition evaluates to true, then the database generates the audit record. The following example creates a policy that audits activities on the hr. Therefore, the top-level actions from administrative users are always audited until the database opens.
After the database opens, the audit policy configuration is in effect. When unified auditing is enabled, the database automatically audits changes to audit settings. The database also audits database instance startup and shutdown. Oracle Database provides the following system-supplied audit administrator roles: Users with this role have privileges to do the following: Users with this role are only privileged to view the audit trail contents.
Oracle Database can configure auditing for specified events. If the event occurs during a user session, then the database generates an audit record. An audit trail is a location that stores audit records. The unified audit trailnew in Oracle Database 12c, provides unified storage for audit records from all types of auditing.
You must manually migrate from the traditional audit trails of previous releases to unified auditing. Auditing includes standard and fine-grained auditing, and also includes auditing of the following events, including execution of these events from administrative users:Data collection and analysis methods should be chosen to match the particular evaluation in terms of its key evaluation questions (KEQs) and the resources available.
Impact evaluations should make maximum use of existing data and then fill gaps with new.
Miscellaneous forms with descriptions. Other data sheets and forms at Behavior Concepts. ABC Index Card; Formatted for a 3 X 5 index cards, this pocket sized data collection tool is ideal for low to medium frequency behaviors and minimizes writing by allowing for quick category checks.
This is the second edition of a highly succesful book which has sold nearly copies world wide since its publication in Many chapters will be rewritten and expanded due to a lot of progress in these areas since the publication of the first edition.
Big Data (BD), with their potential to ascertain valued insights for enhanced decision-making process, have recently attracted substantial interest from both academics and practitioners.
Table 2. U.S. Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD) Tile Grid Extents. In the event an ARD tile intersects more than one row along a WRS-2 path, the northernmost row data will populate the tile from areas where rows overlap, as seen in Figure 6 below.
1 Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13th May Content • Introduction to GIS • Data concepts • Data input • Analysis • Applications – selected examples.