Models, Documents, and Source Code Let's start with understanding the relationships between models, documents, source code, and documentation, something depicted in Figure 1. From AM's point of view a document is any artifact external to source code whose purpose is to convey information in a persistent manner. This is different from the concept of a model, which is an abstraction that describes one or more aspects of a problem or a potential solution addressing a problem. Some models will become documents, or be included as a part of them, although many more will simply be discarded once they have fulfilled their purpose.
Simple Report all non-const variables declared at namespace how do you write a critical summary. Avoid singletons Singletons are basically complicated global objects in disguise.
In a multi-threaded environment, the initialization of the static object does not introduce a race condition unless you carelessly access a shared object from within its constructor.
Note that the initialization of a local static does not imply a race condition. However, if the destruction of X involves an operation that needs to be synchronized we must use a less simple solution.
If you, as many do, define a singleton as a class for which only one object is created, functions like myX are not singletons, and this useful technique is not an exception to the no-singleton rule. Enforcement Very hard in general.
Look for classes with names that include singleton. Look for classes for which only a single object is created by counting objects or by examining constructors. Make interfaces precisely and strongly typed Reason Types are the simplest and best documentation, have well-defined meaning, and are guaranteed to be checked at compile time.
Also, precisely typed code is often optimized better. That is error-prone and often verbose. Consider using a variant or a pointer to base instead. For generic code these Ts can be general or concept constrained template parameters.
An int can carry arbitrary forms of information, so we must guess about the meaning of the four ints. Most likely, the first two are an x,y coordinate pair, but what are the last two?
Comments and parameter names can help, but we could be explicit: Hard to do well Look for member functions with many built-in type arguments. State preconditions if any Reason Arguments have meaning that may constrain their proper use in the callee.
The type system cannot easily and naturally express that, so we must use other means. For now, we place it in the definition function body.
Expects is described in GSL. Note Prefer a formal specification of requirements, such as Expects p. Note Most member functions have as a precondition that some class invariant holds.
That invariant is established by a constructor and must be reestablished upon exit by every member function called from outside the class. The rules for passing pointers.
Prefer Expects for expressing preconditions Reason To make it clear that the condition is a precondition and to enable tool use. This can make them hard to distinguish from ordinary code, hard to update, hard to manipulate by tools, and may have the wrong semantics do you always want to abort in debug mode and check nothing in productions runs?
Once language support becomes available e. Note Expects can also be used to check a condition in the middle of an algorithm. Note No, using unsigned is not a good way to sidestep the problem of ensuring that a value is nonnegative. Enforcement Not enforceable Finding the variety of ways preconditions can be asserted is not feasible.
Warning about those that can be easily identified assert has questionable value in the absence of a language facility. State postconditions To detect misunderstandings about the result and possibly catch erroneous implementations.
Note Postconditions are especially important when they relate to something that is not directly reflected in a returned result, such as a state of a data structure used.
Example Consider a function that manipulates a Record, using a mutex to avoid race conditions: Stating the postcondition would have made it clear: Only postconditions related to the users can be stated in the interface.
Enforcement Not enforceable This is a philosophical guideline that is infeasible to check directly in the general case. Domain specific checkers like lock-holding checkers exist for many toolchains. Prefer Ensures for expressing postconditions Reason To make it clear that the condition is a postcondition and to enable tool use.
This can make them hard to distinguish from ordinary code, hard to update, hard to manipulate by tools, and may have the wrong semantics. Enforcement Not enforceable Finding the variety of ways postconditions can be asserted is not feasible.
If an interface is a template, document its parameters using concepts Reason Make the interface precisely specified and compile-time checkable in the not so distant future.Ken Wilber's new book, Integral Spirituality: A Startling New Role for Religion in the Modern and Postmodern World, appeared in November This article summarizes the book and offers some of my comments.
During the last couple of decades Ken Wilber has . Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Author Tag: You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the.
Pay for essay writing online a fair price and choose an academic writer who will provide an original and complete well-researched college paper in return.
We can write you a perfect assignment that ideally matches your requirements in no time. We work day and night to offer you a .
Figure barnweddingvt.com relationship between models, documents, source code, and documentation. 3. Why Do People Document?.
Agile developers recognize that documentation is an intrinsic part of any system, the creation and maintenance of which is a "necessary evil" to some and an enjoyable task for others, an aspect of software development that can be made agile when you choose to do so.
The biggest advantage that you want to know about when you make the do my essay request is that we write all our papers from scratch. This means that we don't .
Affordablepapers is a reliable writing service with a great reputation. This company has assisted college student for more than 10 years, delivering essays and term papers of the highest quality. We respect our clients and make sure our papers help students from America, Europe, and the UK achieve their academic goals.