Gender Issues "Because with boys failure is attributed to external factors and success is attributed to ability, they keep their confidence, even with failure.
The professional theories have also been developed from a male perspective. Social work, on the other hand, is a female professional project, where women constitute a vast majority of the professionals.
This article explores the process of social work professionalisation in Norway from a feminist perspective and by taking the historical position of women into consideration.
According to the official account, social work in Norway is a product of the post-WWII How has gender shaped education state.
The development of the post-war welfare state did move Norwegian social work from the margins to a much more central position, but gender is still an important dimension through which to deconstruct professional development. A corps of executive officers was required to handle a series of social-political reforms regarding social support and economic services.
During the anniversary celebrations, many emphasized that this state demand had given rise to a whole new kind of professional and contributed to continual growth in social work regarding knowledge production.
The social work profession in Norway is the topic of this article, with a focus on two main concerns. I challenge the official understanding of the origin of Norwegian social work as a profession, claiming that there already existed a school of professional social work prior to the state school, although its existence has been made invisible and neglected in the official story.
From a feminist perspective I explore the constitution of a professional field and the construction of the first school of social work, focusing on what these pioneering women tried to achieve, their working strategies, thought styles and motivations.
Also I argue that our understanding of professions and professional growth is still overwhelmingly male biased. Among other things, gendering professional theories will produce new and richer understandings of the professions and allow us to comment on how the premises for becoming successful within the system of professions differ according to gender.
In my view, social work provides an example of a profession where there is still a knowledge gap to fill and where there are silenced stories that need to be told.
The article draws on earlier writings on social work by scholars and by social workers themselvesa series of white papers, annual reports, official statistics, biographies and Festschrifts .
The article begins with a brief outline of professional theories and a feminist critique of these before touching on how the process of professionalization in social work has been accounted for internationally by different scholars, taking conventional and feminist interpretations into account.
Unlike male professionals, women were confronted with obstacles and dilemmas related to their familial obligations and assumed place in society. Given their different positioning, they were guided by a different professional logic and articulated their strategic aims in accordance with the normative expectations towards women.
A theoretical framework Professions in the form we know them today are inextricably linked to modernity Fauske, ; Larson, ; Slagstad, Some characteristics, however, seem to recur in the literature: In a recent article, Brante argues vigorously against a broadening of the definition and advocates a universal definition based on an approach that views professions as occupations that conduct interventions derived from the scientific knowledge of mechanisms, structures and contexts.
Professions, he argues, are socially and politically significant parts of contextually conditioned truth regimes. According to Brante, a strict definition has an impact on research and the lack of a shared definition renders communication between scholars more difficult.
Although all agree that professional work is knowledge-based, the knowledge question itself is a much debated issue.
From the s onwards, the multitude of different knowledge forms in professions seems to have been more accepted and the assumption that abstract and scientific knowledge forms are always superior to practical and experience-based knowledge has been challenged Heggen and Engebretsen, Fundamental disagreements between scholars in the research field encourage further investigations from different perspectives.
As many feminists have pointed out, autonomy and abstract thinking connote masculinity in our society, whereas practical work connotes femininity Dahle, ; Davies, ; Annandale, ; Waerness, Hence, the professional work that many women do, such as nursing, social work, and teaching, is regularly associated with being practical, not theoretical.
The idea that professions emerge in dynamic interaction with their environment and that professional politics are shaped through negotiation and power struggles have gained approval Larson, ; Abbott, ; Fauske, To prosper, actors must prove a societal need for their expert knowledge and, furthermore, strategic allies are required to support their professional claims.
Those who succeed in promoting their self-interests obtain benefits and privileges on behalf of their group. They achieve sovereignty and jurisdiction over their knowledge, i.
This mode of thought suggests that power is always involved. In his influential work, Abbott views the professions as a system of expert knowledge that, above all, is characterized by jurisdictional power struggles about turf, privileges and influence. Within this system, abstract theoretical knowledge confers an important advantage in the power struggles, while practical knowledge is devalued and subordinated.Recognition of how this social categorization has shaped my life and self-identity is something I am always attempting to obtain and be aware of.
my gender, and my education, it is important to first understand how I make judgments regarding these subjects. I think that the culture of this city has had it's influence on all of us and. Since the mid-twentieth century, the United States has seen a striking shift in the gender dynamics of higher educational attainment as women have come to earn college degrees at higher rates than men.
According to an Internet quiz I took, I associate men with careers and women with family. But the quiz wasn’t a harmless BuzzFeed time killer.
It was the Gender-Career Implicit Bias Test, a survey designed by Harvard researchers to test thought processes. My result wasn’t wholly unexpected — I. Vote Center barnweddingvt.com a complete list of Vote Centers located throughout Sacramento County.
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Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and barnweddingvt.coming on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or. Gender socialization is the process through which children learn about the social expectations, attitudes and behaviours typically associated with boys and girls.